THE ROLE OF LEADERHSIP AND IDIOSYNCRASY IN US FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS PAKISTAN
Keywords:Poliheuristic Theory, Leadership, Idiosyncratic Factors, United States, Decision Making, Pakistan
How does leadership in the United States specifically affect its foreign policy decision-making towards Pakistan? Using the poliheuristic theory of decision-making, this paper explores how idiosyncratic factors such as leaders’ perceptions, past experiences, and ideological orientations – along with the dynamic geopolitical environment of the world – affect the US foreign policy making process. It argues that the role of leadership increases when issues involve high-risk situations – for example after the 9/11 attacks, President Bush was autonomous ‘enough’ to devise the national security strategy vis-à-vis Pakistan. In a lowrisk situation the role of leadership is either constrained by different actors, or the leadership utilizes the same actors such as the US Congress as leverage against Pakistan to entice or force it to bring its policy in line with the US national interests as perceived by the decision-makers.
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