Journal of Contemporary Studies 2022-12-29T07:45:00+05:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Journal of Contemporary Studies</strong> is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University, first published in 2012.</p> <p><strong>HEC HJRS Awarded Y Category | </strong><strong>Double Blind Peer-Review |</strong><strong>Open Archive &amp; Open Access.</strong><strong> </strong></p> <h1 class="page_title">Aims and Objectives</h1> <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University that started publishing in 2012. It is a HEC recognised biannual Journal in Y category and the articles submitted for publication are subjected to double blind peer-review – one national and one international. The primary objective of the Journal is advancing critically-oriented academic and intellectual discourse on contemporary international issues. It is committed to providing its readers in academia and policy circles with in-depth scholarly analyses and diverse policy perspectives pertaining to prominent ongoing debates at the national and international level. It aspires to promote academic culture through original and high quality research by established as well emerging scholars and practitioners in the field.</p> <h1 class="page_title">Scope</h1> <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is an inter-disciplinary journal. Contributions are invited on a broad range of topics pertaining to the fields of international relations, strategic Studies, peace and conflict studies, government and public policy and human resource development. The journal welcomes new perspectives reflecting contemporary trends in afore mentioned fields.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> The Four Ages of American Foreign Policy: Weak Power, Great Power, Super Power, Hyper Powe 2022-12-29T07:45:00+05:00 Rahat Naseem Ahmed Khan <p>The book divides the history of American Foreign Policy into Four Ages <br>for comprehensive understanding of readers, each defined by a <br>consistent increase in the country's power in its relations with others. <br>Three unique features of American foreign policy are the ideological goals of <br>foreign policy, the use of economic instruments in pursuing them, and a <br>democratic process for formulating and implementing decisions about it.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University The Avoidable War: The Dangers of a Catastrophic Conflict between the US and Xi Jinping’s China 2022-12-29T07:35:58+05:00 Anwar Ali <p>The strategists and policymakers predict that the 2020s will be “the <br>decade of living dangerously” due to the unfolding crisis in the <br>relationship between the United States (US) and China. The former <br>Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd (2007-2010 and 2013), in his book <br>“The Avoidable War: The Dangers of a Catastrophic Conflict between the US and Xi Jinping’s China” terms it a “decisive decade” in the dynamics of changing <br>balance of power between China and the US.</p> 2022-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY IN AFRICA: OPTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN 2022-12-18T23:53:11+05:00 Sadia Sulaiman <p>Pakistan’s paradigm shift in foreign policy to geo-economics, necessitatesthat Islamabad look for opportunities within and outside the region to utilise its geographic and economic potential. This new policy shift makes the African region a key area of significance for Pakistan, owing to the huge trade and market potential of the region. The adoption of ‘Look Africa Policy’ by Pakistan is a key step. This paper aims to explore the options and opportunities for Pakistan in the African region. It analyses these opportunities and associated challenges in the light of economic diplomacy framework. The paper argues that Pakistan requires active diplomaticengagement at public and private levels both, to boost trade and economic relationship with African region for the mutual economic benefit.</p> 2022-08-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 NDU NATIONAL INTEREST: PERSPECTIVES AND PRACTICES 2022-12-18T23:58:21+05:00 Ehsan Mehmood Khan <p>“The objectives of foreign policy must be defined in terms of the national interest and must be supported with adequate power.”<br>– Hans J. Morgenthau</p> <p>Even though, national interest is one of the most developed concepts of IR scholarship, yet it remains under the debate in academic and policy circles. Various scholars and institutions contextualize and categorize national interests varyingly. There are five main issues under deliberation: first, the interplay of power and morality in formulation and pursuit of national interests; second, longevity, durability and permanency of national interests; third, the interaction between national and public interests, and the process of interest adjudication, which is the function of the political system; fourth, Islamic perspective on national interest; and fifth, the future <br>of national interest in the wake of growing power of the non-state actors, which have started challenging the notion of national interest. This paper revisits the concept and context of national interest with strategic arguments on different debates on national interest. Important attributes of the power potential affecting national interests are considered and conceptualized by the author. The research is descriptive, explanatory, analytical and perspective in nature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-08-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 NDU THREATS FROM CLIMATE CHANGE TO THE MILITARY SECURITY OF PAKISTAN 2022-12-19T00:05:23+05:00 Faraz Haider Adil Sultan <p>The nexus between climate change and military security is essentially non-existent in Pakistan’s security discourse. The paper argues for the connection between these two sectors - from the Copenhagen School framework of security - and presents how threats from climate change threaten Pakistan’s military security. Most notable threats, in severity and frequency, are sea level rise, cyclone risks, drastic floods, warming patterns, and glacial melting. Sea level rise and cyclone risks impact naval assets and infrastructure while warming patterns and glacial melting affect troop movement, deployments, and logistics. Resultantly, military training, force capacity, and operational readiness is affected. Threats are more potent in strategically significant locations (Siachen, Sindh, and Punjab) which house important forward military bases. The paper provides actionable recommendations that create foundations for future steps as well.</p> 2022-08-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 NDU ADDRESSING CYBER VULNERABILITIES THROUGH DETERRENCE 2022-12-19T00:13:21+05:00 Nida Shahid Ahmad Khan <p>The study analyses the possible responses to cyber-attacks through cyberspace deterrence. The inundated cyber-attacks have prompted major powers to establish cyber deterrence. However, in the absence of a model of punishment, as it is empirically found in the nuclear domain, the efficacy of cyber deterrence is limited. The model of punishment against cyber-attacks is based on the traditional nuclear deterrence model, which is either deterrence by denial or deterrence by punishment. Cyber deterrence may not be a replica of traditional deterrence and give similar response measures in a cyber-attack. The assured retaliation in cyber requires an explanation of response measures that do not cause collateral damage. The paper concludes that cyber aggressors escaped retaliation due to the lack of attribution and not being punished due to limited retaliatory measures.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 NDU CLIMATE CHANGE AND MIGRATION:NEW CHALLENGES TO GLOBAL SOUTH 2022-12-19T00:20:06+05:00 Erum Muzaffar <p>In 21st century, climate change has emerged as one of the major threats to mankind. Although climate change is a global phenomenon, but it’s not affecting the world equally. The International Federation of Red Cross claims that in recent years— more than war and persecution—climate change disasters are a bigger cause of population displacement. This poses new challenges to the Global South. In the developing countries, it is not only climate change but other push factors which have compelled people to migrate internally or internationally. The study explores the causes of climate-induced migration and its impact on developing countries. The paper is based on qualitative research. To deal with climate-induced migration, the Global South requires a new framework for managing potential movements. It also need to collaborate and work on mitigation, adaptation, and risk <br />reduction strategies at national and regional levels. <br /><br /></p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 NDU QUAD: A RECIPE FOR CONFRONTATION OR STABILITY? 2022-12-19T01:24:01+05:00 Sheryar Khan Dost Mohammad <p>Quad or Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, a group of four democracies, the US, India, Japan, and Australia, was first proposed in 2007 by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in his ‘confluence of two seas’ speech that subsequently embarked on the path to the foundation of the group. Quad perceives China’s economic growth, which enables her to transform the world order as a threat and aims at containing the growing Chinese assertiveness in the IndoPacific region. The Malabar naval exercises in the Indian Ocean by the Quad members were one such exercise. This paper, aims to analyze the formation of Quad and will contemplate whether the group is causing confrontation or stability in the Asia-Pacific and Indo-Pacific regions. The paper will also assess that the Quad is designed to counter China’s growing influence in the Asia- pacific and Indo-pacific regions. Containing China is likely to create a <br />confrontation in the region.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 NDU SOCIO-ECONOMIC DISPARITIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY OF PAKISTAN 2022-12-19T01:30:51+05:00 Muhammad Tariq Niaz <p>Socio-economic disparities can pose threat to the security of a nation-state. They may even threaten a state’s survival. Thereby States have to adopt a comprehensive security approach to address socio-economic disparities. Pakistan is also challenged by socio-economic disparities caused by several internal and external factors. National Security Policy (NSP) 2022-2026 has duly recognised these factors and proposed a comprehensive security paradigm for the country. This study deploys a Comprehensive security approach as propounded by Copenhagen School to understand the linkage between socio-economic disparities and the national security of Pakistan. It attempts to explain how socio-economic disparities affect Pakistan's national security and what can be done to address them. <br /><br /></p> 2022-08-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Contemporary Studies GENDER AND LEADERSHIP RESPONSE IN COVID-19 2022-12-19T01:36:22+05:00 Aroobah Lak Tasawar Hussain <p>The study attempts to uncover the gendered construction and understanding of subjects of politics and leadership. It argues that <br>mainstream construction of Covid-19 leadership response as, ‘success of femininity’ and ‘failure of masculinity’ encapsulates naturalisation of ‘essentialist gendered understanding’ of subjects of politics andleadership. By applying theoretical and methodological framework of post-positivist feminist traditions and identity theory, the paper tends to contextualise the origin, source and objectives of gendered lens that juxtaposes femininity with politics and leadership. In essence, the article underscores that a political agents’ leadership response to Covid-19 is a manifestation of his or her social and discursive identities, agent’s understanding of their placement within power hierarchies and internationalisation of ‘essentialist gendered identities’ and argues in favour of reworking political assumptions and identity solutions to construct gender-neutral discourses in politics and leadership.</p> 2022-12-19T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University STATE OF INDIAN DEMOCRACY AND US-INDIA STRATEGIC COOPERATION: AN UNEASY CONVERGENCE? 2022-12-19T01:45:40+05:00 Humayun Javed Ameer Abdullah Khan <p>US-India strategic convergence is likely to continue as Washington considers New Delhi a counterweight to Beijing. However, rising <br>right-wing authoritarianism in India under BJP, marked by the erosion of democratic standards, has created a policy paradox for <br>Biden Administration- how to balance geopolitical interests with democratic ideals. The paper argues that adhering to the norms of <br>democracy is not just a normative concern but also a strategic concern for the US as democracy is one of the core pillars that <br>sustains US- led liberal world order. However, the Biden administration does not appear to emphasize democratic values <br>and human rights performance to the point where strategic convergence would seem at risk. Thus Biden administration is <br>likely to emphasize democratic values and human rights performance to the point where strategic convergence would not <br>seem at risk. <br>Keywords: Democracy, Human Rights, Balancing, US, India, China</p> 2022-12-19T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University