Journal of Contemporary Studies 2023-04-24T19:44:20+05:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Journal of Contemporary Studies</strong> is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University, first published in 2012.</p> <p><strong>HEC HJRS Awarded Y Category | </strong><strong>Double Blind Peer-Review |</strong><strong>Open Archive &amp; Open Access.</strong><strong> </strong></p> <h1 class="page_title">Aims and Objectives</h1> <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University that started publishing in 2012. It is a HEC recognised biannual Journal in Y category and the articles submitted for publication are subjected to double blind peer-review – one national and one international. The primary objective of the Journal is advancing critically-oriented academic and intellectual discourse on contemporary international issues. It is committed to providing its readers in academia and policy circles with in-depth scholarly analyses and diverse policy perspectives pertaining to prominent ongoing debates at the national and international level. It aspires to promote academic culture through original and high quality research by established as well emerging scholars and practitioners in the field.</p> <h1 class="page_title">Scope</h1> <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is an inter-disciplinary journal. Contributions are invited on a broad range of topics pertaining to the fields of international relations, strategic Studies, peace and conflict studies, government and public policy and human resource development. The journal welcomes new perspectives reflecting contemporary trends in afore mentioned fields.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Documents 2023-04-24T19:44:20+05:00 JCS <ol> <li>Joint Communiqué-SCO Heads of Government (Prime Ministers) <br>Council Meeting, November 2, 2022</li> <li>Sharm el-Sheikh Implementation Plan, Revised Draft Decision -<br>/CMA.4, November 20, 2022.</li> </ol> 2023-04-24T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aid, Politics and the War of Narratives in the US-Pakistan Relations - A Case Study of Kerry Lugar Berman Act 2023-03-14T22:16:14+05:00 Syed Wajeeh Ul Hassan <p>The author employs the decolonial perspectives to examine the politics and narratives surrounding the US Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act of 2009, also called the Kerry Lugar Berman (KLB) Act.1 The act authorised the payment of $1.5 billion per year in non-military assistance to the government of Pakistan for the next five years, from 2010 to 2014, with a provision to extend funding for an additional five years on meeting specific benchmarks. The act was severely criticised and generated a debate in Pakistan. One of the significant differences from past practices was the inclusion of conditions aimed at increasing the Pakistani military's accountability and limiting funding use.</p> 2023-03-15T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University Great Potential, Many Pitfalls Understanding China's Belt and Road Initiative 2023-03-14T22:36:07+05:00 Air Commodore Sajjad Hussain <p>Bijan Omrani, Editor of the Journal Asian Affairs critically evaluates the potential as well the pitfalls of the Belt Road Initiative (BRI) trade and infrastructure project by exploring some related themes. This edited book is divided into seven chapters, each contributed by a different author. These chapters were presented at a joint conference of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs and the Woodrow Wilson Centre. The editor has brought together these chapters for the sake of an advancedclarity on the subject. The primary data sources comprise of national and international statistics, such as the World Bank Databank, as well as governmental documents made public, including the Pentagon report. <br /><br /></p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University Global Pakistan: Pakistan’s Role in the International System 2023-03-14T22:46:12+05:00 Safia Malik <p>Globalization is a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon. The advancement in the means of communication and technology has played the role of a catalyst in intensifying international economic, social and political integration thus accelerating the process of globalization. Pakistan, a member of the global community, competes economically and on cultural, geo-political and diplomatic fronts. Jochen Hippler and Vaqar Ahmed’s book, Global Pakistan: Pakistan’s Role in the International System, explores Pakistan’s role in the international system and the challenges posed to it due to globalization. The book comprises eleven chapters including an introduction by Jochen Hippler, former Country Director Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES), Pakistan. The book in a broader context addresses three themes: (i) political, cultural, religious and geo-strategic impact of globalization on Pakistan; (ii) changing global geo-political landscape; and (iii) integration of state economy with the global economy.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University The New Climate War: The Fight to Take Back Our Planet 2023-03-14T22:51:59+05:00 Mujeeb Jan Talpur <p>The New Climate War" by Michael E. Mann is a comprehensive and well-written examination of the ongoing battle to combat climate change. Mann, a leading climate scientist, provides a detailed look at the tactics used by those who deny the reality of climate change and the ways in which these tactics have hindered progress in addressing the issue. He also offers solutions for how we can overcome these obstacles and effectively combat climate change. Well-known climate scientist explains how the fossil fuel industry has spent the last thirty years avoiding blame and postponing climate change action, and offers a strategy to preserve the planet. Recycle. Fly less frequently. Avoid eating meat. These climate change indicators have been taught to us. However, a marketing strategy has successfully placed the whole burden of combating climate change on individuals, resulting in an overemphasis on human behaviour.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University SECURITISATION OF DETERRENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR STRATEGIC STABILITY 2023-03-13T01:25:53+05:00 Salma Shaheen <p>The post-Cold War international strategic environment transformed into one characterized by high level of certainty and complexity. This challenged the concept and practice of deterrence, which had remained the mainstay of the Cold War strategic environment. This research employs securitization theory to evaluate the actions that nuclear-armed states (particularly the US, Russia, China, UK, and France) took in response to this shift. The research finds out that the nuclear-armed states responded with de-securitization, re-securitization and wider securitization of deterrence. By doing so, as a concept and practice, deterrence has entered into a high and extraordinary phase of politics, resulting in the construction of a response (deterrent posture) that pervades across different sectors of society/national power, including politics, society and industry. However, the research notes that this posture is based on a high risk of escalation and competitive impulse driving states into a relentless arms race. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of this posture depends on how consistent nucleararmed states are and will be in maintaining such a posture.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University THE DECOLONIAL TURN: NEW CHALLENGES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS TRADITIONS 2023-03-13T01:42:38+05:00 Syed Wajeeh ul Hassan Fatima Sajjad <p>International Relations emerged as a discipline in the aftermath of World War I to avert destructive events through the systemic study of interstate relations. The mainstream IR reflected Eurocentric discourse that viewed the world from the prism of the western colonial powers. This paper reviews relevant literature to examine the decolonial turn in IR and its challenges to established traditions of the discipline. It is a critical reflection of a scholar from the South trying to understand Eurocentricity in a discipline that claims to be international. The research concludes that the decolonial turn in IR is challenging the basic foundations of the discipline and underscores the need for a change in the parameters of discussion around the principles and assumptions underlying the knowledge production system of the IR discipline.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University STRATEGIC DIVERGENCE IN THE US-PAKISTAN RELATIONSHIP UNDER THE TRUMP ADMINISTRATION 2023-03-14T12:22:54+05:00 Yasir Malik Saira Aquil <p>This study analyses the US-Pakistan relationship during the Trump administration from a neo-classical realist lens. Along with systemic influences, the analysis framework also includes the role of domestic and cognitive factors in understanding both sides’ perceptions, behaviors, and preferences toward each other. During Trump’s presidential term, both sides could not fritter away the mistrust and move beyond the traditional course of engagement characterized by tactical convergence based on the rewards for service rendered by Pakistan. Pakistan was not a strategic choice for Washington since the two countries had contrasting expectations on evolving global developments, emerging regional geo-political and domestic reconfigurations. Parallel to this, Pakistan’s economic <br />vulnerabilities were exploited by the Republicans to reassert their leverage in bargaining. This grey area helped the White House allure Pakistan with its carrot-and-stick approach and compelled policy planners in Islamabad to think that a strong foreign policy always rests on a strong domestic base.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University CPEC AND GILGIT-BALTISTAN: A SOCIO-ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE 2023-03-14T21:04:04+05:00 Summar Iqbal Babar Najeeb Alam <p>PEC, a massive economic project under BRI, focuses on the socioeconomic and political dividends in Gilgit Baltistan. It is expected to create more than half a million jobs by creating Special Economic Zones in Gilgit, imparting a boom to the tourism industry and enlarging the scope of e-commerce. Hydropower development, technical expertise, and human resources—resulting from CPEC projects—are also likely to transform the socio-economic dynamics of the region. This paper argues that the success of CPEC— considering the importance of connectivity for local markets—is likely to transform the region's socio-economic dynamics that will help promote economic and social inclusion of the people, mitigating their sense of deprivation.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University HYBRID WARFARE: EMERGING CHALLENGES FOR PAKISTAN 2023-03-14T21:23:51+05:00 Hassan Jalil Shah Muhammad Ehsan <p>Hybrid Warfare is gaining currency and posing new challenges to military thinkers and practitioners. The changes by the technological revolution, information and psychological operations, digitisation of the battlefield, and modernization in conventional warfare have ceased to be the standalone option for applying force. These changes envisage the application of all Elements of National Power (EoNP), projected along a continuous span of activities, stretching from stability, security, reconstruction and terminating at armed conflict. The paper explains that hybrid warfare is the instrument of choice by the challengers, primarily India, to weaken Pakistan, subjugate it and either balkanise it or make it a flaccid state as the least desired objective. With hybrid warfare as an instrument of application against Pakistan, this article has attempted to dissect hybrid warfare's contours and its impact on Pakistan.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University SAUDI-IRAN RIVALRY: A SECTARIAN DIVIDE OR SECURITY DILEMMA? 2023-03-14T22:05:40+05:00 Junaid Jahandad Ali Mustafa <p>This paper examines two major drivers of conflictual relationship between Saudi Arabia and Iran : sectarian schism and power politics. The protracted enmity and rivalry has been analyzed in light of uncertainty and security dilemma through the prism of constructivism. The application of the theoretical lens provides clarity and supersedes the reductionist analysis of this squabble. The inception of the Shia-Sunni schism and Saudi-Iran rivalry has been investigated in greater length. Within this context, the deterioration of relations due to Saddam Hussein’s demise, the Arab Spring, Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr’s execution, and the impact of Trump’s administration in the US have also been examined. Conclusively, this paper argues that security dilemma and uncertainty of each other’s actions is the driving force and primary cause of Saudi-Iran rivalry rather than sectarian divide.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University