Journal of Contemporary Studies https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site <p>The <strong>Journal of Contemporary Studies</strong> is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University, first published in 2012.</p> <p><strong>HEC HJRS Awarded Y Category | </strong><strong>Double Blind Peer-Review |</strong><strong>Open Archive &amp; Open Access.</strong><strong> </strong></p> <h1 class="page_title">Aims and Objectives</h1> <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University that started publishing in 2012. It is a HEC recognised biannual Journal in Y category and the articles submitted for publication are subjected to double blind peer-review – one national and one international. The primary objective of the Journal is advancing critically-oriented academic and intellectual discourse on contemporary international issues. It is committed to providing its readers in academia and policy circles with in-depth scholarly analyses and diverse policy perspectives pertaining to prominent ongoing debates at the national and international level. It aspires to promote academic culture through original and high quality research by established as well emerging scholars and practitioners in the field.</p> <h1 class="page_title">Scope</h1> <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is an inter-disciplinary journal. Contributions are invited on a broad range of topics pertaining to the fields of international relations, strategic Studies, peace and conflict studies, government and public policy and human resource development. The journal welcomes new perspectives reflecting contemporary trends in afore mentioned fields.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University en-US Journal of Contemporary Studies 2227-3883 <p>License Terms</p> 1. PM Modi’s State Visit to US: Joint Statement from the United States and India, June 22, 2023, Washington D.C. 2. India-UAE Joint Statement during the Visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to UAE, July 15, 2023, UAE. https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/251 Editor's Selection Copyright (c) 2023 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 135 155 DISCURSIVE ‘OTHERING’ OF CHINA IN THE US PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP’S FOREIGN POLICY https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/242 <p><em>The aim of this paper is to understand the role of identity discourses in US foreign policy towards China. It focuses on the </em><em>foreign policy of Donald Trump to deconstruct his discourse on China as ‘different’ and, therefore, a ‘threat’ which eventually </em><em>justified the trade war policies and non-cooperation on the COVID 19 pandemic. There is a continuation of similar identity based, </em><em>foreign policy ventures under Joe Biden administration. By employing constructivism, it is argued that the relationship </em><em>between identity and foreign policy is performative; identity is constructed through discourse, which consequently shapes the </em><em>foreign policy of a state. To understand this relationship of performativity, Donald Trump’s foreign policy towards China is a</em><em>nalyzed by applying Lene Hanson’s inter-textual critical discourse analysis model. It unfolds that the American mainstream </em><em>newspapers constructed the events of trade war and COVID-19 in line with Trump’s ‘China threat’ narrative. This inter-textuality </em><em>between the official and unofficial discourse legitimized Trump’s otherization of China as a threat and, consequently, his policies.</em></p> Asim Zaman Aisha Younus Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Contemporary Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 1 16 INDIA’S MARITIME STRATEGY AND IT’S IMPLICATIONS FOR PAKISTAN https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/243 <p><em>This study highlights the changing dimensions of power in the Indo-Pacific region. A paradigm shift in India's maritime strategy is shaping the balance of power in the region. The regional balance has shifted in favor of India due to the new Indo-Pacific policy of the United States. A major shift in US policy has strengthened India's maritime security and blue economy in the region. However, India's maritime strategy has far-reaching implications for Pakistan's security and economy. This article examines India's maritime strategy in the 21st century and the development of partnerships with Western powers to contain China in the region. The article analyzes the change in India's maritime strategy and the expansion of its role in the Indo-Pacific region due to the availability of new technologies. </em></p> Nazish Bhutta Arshad Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Contemporary Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 17 34 EMBRACING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CHALLENGES FOR PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATIONS IN PAKISTAN https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/244 <p><em>Public sector organizations are adopting Artificial Intelligence to gain efficiency, improve service quality and enhance policy-making capabilities. However, the growth of technology adoption in Pakistan’s public sector organisations is slow because of several challenges the country faces. This paper focuses on the challenges that Pakistan’s public sector organisations face in implementing AI </em><em>and aims to highlight the initiatives in light of "Vision 2025," and "Digital Pakistan Policy 2018." In a nutshell, technological challenges like cost, budgets, technology adoption, research and development, cost-benefit analysis, collaborations, bureaucratic structures, and ICT readiness are the issues that are faced by public sector organisations. Policy-making in digitalisation and overcoming the adoption challenge is a big challenge for public sector organizations. This paper has identified some of the challenges in public sector organisations where further research and policy-making can help overcome challenges for public offices in the future.</em></p> Sara Nazeer Yousma Gil Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Contemporary Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 35 52 THE US WITHDRAWAL AND CHINA’S GROWING ENGAGEMENT IN AFGHANISTAN https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/245 <p><em>China’s interest in Afghanistan has grown substantially over the past few decades. This is evident from the fact that Logar Aynak, the copper extraction project of China, is the </em><em>largest</em><em> foreign investment in Afghanistan. In this paper</em><em>,</em><em> China’s growing engagement in Afghanistan is studied</em><em>,</em><em> especially China’s role in the aftermath of the US withdrawal from Afghanistan is examined at length. The main problems and obstacles China faces in Afghanistan are explored</em><em>,</em><em> and challenges and opportunities arise as a result are discussed as well. Considering China’s policy of careful engagement in the region</em><em>,</em><em> the nature of China’s growing involvement in Afghanistan is studied.</em></p> Saeed Ahmed Rid Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Contemporary Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 53 68 PAIGHAM-E-PAKISTAN AS A COUNTER EXTREMISM NARRATIVE https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/246 <p><em>Pakistan has faced issues of religious radicalization, extremism and terrorism for decades; religious intolerance has not only transformed the social fabric of this society but has also divided its people into sectarian identities. Pakistan has adopted both kinetic and non-kinetic approaches to deal with these menaces of extremism and terrorism. On one side, the state has opted for kinetic options such as security operations to eliminate terrorism but it always comes back in some other form or place. On the other side, to eliminate this threat of violence, the state has opted for the use of non-kinetic approaches such as narratives and development/ education projects in the pockets of areas and social strata breeding extremism. This paper considers Paigham-e-Pakistan (Message of Pakistan) as an attempt to answer narratives of extremism, hatred, and intolerance and uproot them from the very foundations they claim to derive from religion. It aims to replace these divisive narratives with ideas of enlightenment and peace derived from the very same religion. This research is an attempt to understand the Paigham-e-Pakistan as a counter narrative document and to illustrate its importance within the Pakistani society.</em></p> Anum Babur Saba Noor Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Contemporary Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 69 87 THE FOUR HORSEMEN OF THE AFGHAN QUESTION: STRUCTURAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE AFGHAN SOLUTION https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/247 <p><em>The article examines how Taliban-ruled Afghanistan faces several challenges due to structural constraints in the post-US era. In this study, the authors aim to identify recurring obstacles to the Afghan state and nation-building process that cannot be adequately explained using reductive reasoning. The literature review identifies four structural variables contributing to the recurrence of political, economic, and humanitarian failures in Afghanistan. These variables include insecurities of regional states; the absence of a hegemon and diversity of political ideologies; regional defiance of the liberal world order; and US influence on the international economic system. Since Afghanistan cannot be fixed in any of the surrounding regions and constitutes a transitional point, the study addresses its regional fix by employing the concept of the Eurasian Balkans to analyze the Afghan question. The article concludes that its volatile fate stems more from external forces than internal ones. </em></p> Imran Khan Naila Qazi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Contemporary Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 88 104 ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE GOVERNANCE OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN PAKISTAN https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/248 <p><em>The study analyzes the perception of university teachers in Pakistan about accountability, transparency, research environment, funding for the welfare of employees, and hiring regular faculty members. These are the main parameters of higher education governance. To achieve this a sample consisting of 443 faculty members out of around 50,000 faculty members was selected. </em><em>The survey questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale was used for data collection. Personal visits and Google forms were used for data collection and IBM SPSS 24.0 was used for analysis. Results show a significant difference between public and private institutions in terms of transparency, accountability mechanism, workload policy, research environment, preferences for regular hiring, and funds for employee welfare. The mean score for the above-mentioned factors among Basic Pay Scale (BPS) and Tenure Track System (TTS) institutions is not statistically significant.</em><em> The f</em><em>aculty members with different years of experience have different perceptions regarding accountability processes of governance in the Universities. </em></p> Muneer Ahmed Shafei Moiz Hali Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Contemporary Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 105 125 1. Military Strategy in the Twenty-First Century – The Challenge for NATO 2. Rethinking International Political Economy 3. Downfall: Lessons for Our Final Century https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/249 Azfar Bilal Qureshi Sajjad Hussain Awan Kamil Shehzad Bakhsh and Adnan Khan Copyright (c) 2023 NDU https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 12 1 126 134