Journal of Contemporary Studies https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site <p>The <strong>Journal of Contemporary Studies</strong> is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University, first published in 2012.</p> <p><strong>HEC HJRS Awarded Y Category | </strong><strong>Double Blind Peer-Review |</strong><strong>Open Archive &amp; Open Access.</strong><strong> </strong></p> <h1 class="page_title">Aims and Objectives</h1> <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University that started publishing in 2012. It is a HEC recognised biannual Journal in Y category and the articles submitted for publication are subjected to double blind peer-review – one national and one international. The primary objective of the Journal is advancing critically-oriented academic and intellectual discourse on contemporary international issues. It is committed to providing its readers in academia and policy circles with in-depth scholarly analyses and diverse policy perspectives pertaining to prominent ongoing debates at the national and international level. It aspires to promote academic culture through original and high quality research by established as well emerging scholars and practitioners in the field.</p> <h1 class="page_title">Scope</h1> <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is an inter-disciplinary journal. Contributions are invited on a broad range of topics pertaining to the fields of international relations, strategic Studies, peace and conflict studies, government and public policy and human resource development. The journal welcomes new perspectives reflecting contemporary trends in afore mentioned fields.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University en-US Journal of Contemporary Studies 2227-3883 <p>License Terms</p> THE ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE ENHANCEMENT OF CYBER SECURITY OF PAKISTAN https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/188 <p><strong>Abstract</strong> <br>With rapid advances in technology related to Artificial Intelligence (AI), there has been an increase in the use of AI-based algorithms in <br>automating processes. In terms of the cyber domain, there has also been the development of new architectures that utilize AI-based programming. This article seeks to understand what is the potential of current AI-based cyber-security architecture and what benefits does it present over traditional cyber-security approaches. It uses Pakistan as a case study to justify the use of an AI-based approach. And it argues that by preferring an AI-based architecture to a traditional cyber-security approach, Pakistan can bolster its cyber-security when it comes to defence against cyber-attacks.</p> <p><br><br></p> Zeeshan Javed Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 1 14 REVISITING BLUE ECONOMY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR THE MARITIME SECTOR OF PAKISTAN https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/191 <p>The need for sustainable development amidst an ever-expanding global population and diminishing resources on land has engendered a worldwide shift from Green/Brown economy to Blue Economy. The economists estimate that the ocean economy can increase the assets up to US $24 trillion and can be healthy for the ecosystem as well. In this aspect, Pakistan can extract maximum gains from the growth of its Blue Economy because it has an ‘untapped maritime potential’ that offers multiple opportunities. To securitize the significance of Blue Economy is therefore imperative for Pakistan, not only for economic dividends but also for ensuring human security of the coastal population of Pakistan. Hence, this research focuses on the Blue Economic potential of Pakistan <br>and the opportunities and challenges that lie in this sector.</p> Rutt Syed Aiysha Safdar Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 16 37 MATERNAL INFLUENCE ON YOUTH RADICALIZATION – A CASE STUDY OF DISTRICT MULTAN https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/192 <p>Recruiting teenagers by extremist and violent non-state outfits became more prominent in the post 9/11 scenario in Pakistan. <br>Several factors have contributed to radicalization and luring youth into extremist and militant organizations, i.e. illiteracy, growing <br>inequality, and poverty. District Multan in South Punjab remains one of the areas identified over the years as the breeding and <br>recruitment ground of extremism. Given the alarming level of youth radicalization in South Punjab, this paper highlights motherchild relationship as vital to respond to and pre-empt extremist influences. Though difficult to analyse the complete process leading <br>to radicalization, however, by applying John Bowlby’s Attachment theory (1958), the study demonstrates social status, education, and <br>religious beliefs of mothers’ significantly impacting teenage <br>radicalization, and their inclination towards extremist views and <br>behaviour. Furthermore, it corroborates grievance leading to <br>anger, which may develop due to lack of resources, deprivation, <br>and poverty as one of the drivers of violent extremism.</p> Shaista Malik Salma Malik Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 38 58 PAK-AFGHAN BORDER: DEMARCATION AND MANAGEMENT https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/193 <p>Pak-Afghan relations have many drivers but the foremost have always been security issues, sovereignty concerns, border dispute, <br>and connectivity. The two countries have had a fragile relationship for the last seven decades owing to the Durand Line dispute. The <br>border dispute has been a source of constant deliberations and mostly contested by Afghan politicians, policy makers, and <br>scholars. Controversies and uncertainties are therefore prevalent about the border. This research is based on the analysis of primary <br>documents to address the issue academically, and it discusses the detailed history of demarcation and issues in border management. <br>Islamabad has launched Integrated Border Management System to secure its border from illegal border crossing and smuggling. <br>Afghanistan has not formulated such a strategy. It continues to oppose the existence of Durand Line, which makes cooperation between the two sides—vital to overcome the menace of terrorism and other serious issues—difficult.</p> Lutf ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 59 77 COVID-19: SHIFTING GLOBAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS AND FOREIGN POLICY DECISION-MAKING; SECOND IMAGE REINFORCED https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/194 <p>Pandemic has again hit humankind hard in the form of Covid-19 and its variants. COVID-19 did not take long in transforming from <br>an epidemic to a pandemic, and affected countries in unprecedented and undocumented ways. Socioeconomic dynamics, <br>which play significant role in policy making in any society, have been considerably affected, unearthing the flaws of policy making <br>process. This research studies the relation between the pandemic and global socioeconomic dynamics, and their impact on the <br>foreign policy making of the states. Kenneth Waltz’s level of analysis approach within structural realism provides the basis to <br>analyse the role of second level i.e, the state - mentioned as second image by Waltz. This research reinforces the importance of second <br>image and argues (using the case studies of USA and China) that in the post Covid world, the relevance of second image in states’ <br>foreign policy making is reinforced.</p> Maliha Zeba Khan Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 78 91 Nuclear Reactions: How Nuclear-Armed States Behave https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/197 <p><strong>E</strong>ver since the advent of nuclear weapons, scholars have deliberated upon the effects of nuclear weapons on strategy and policy. By virtue of being an unchallenged mecca of nuclear scholarship, the United States has, apart from driving nuclear politics as well as the instruments of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime, introduced and shaped the theoretical contours of nuclear weapons in a bid to dissect their implications.</p> Dr. Rabia Akhtar Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 92 94 The Power of Geography: Ten Maps that Reveal the Future of Our World https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/199 <p><strong>T</strong>he Power of Geography is a comprehensive geopolitical analysis in the light of geographical, topographical and demographical realities of regions where the Big Three i.e. the USA, Russia and China have numerous stakes.</p> Tariq Asad Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 95 97 India’s Evolving Deterrent Force Posturing in South Asia: Temptation for Pre-Emptive Strikes, Power Projection and Escalation Dominance https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/200 <p><strong>T</strong>he book discusses the prospects of Indian force posturing in South Asia, predominantly under the umbrella of nuclear upheaves. It also focuses on its induction of sophisticated weapon systems, incorporate competing military strategies and reshuffling of deterrence force posture. The book makes a critical addition to indigenously strategic force posture of India and its adverse behaviour against the regional powers, especially China and Pakistan.</p> Dr Rubina Waseem Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 98 100 Documents https://jcs.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/201 <p>1) Remarks by President Biden on the End of the War in Afghanistan, August 31, 2021</p> <p>2) India- Russia Joint Statement Following the Visit of the President of the Russian Federation, New Dehli, December 6, 2021</p> <p>3) China-U.S. Presidential Meeting: Setting Direction and Providing Impetus for Bilateral Relations, Virtual Meeting, November 16, 2021</p> <p>4) Statement by the Prime Minister of Pakistan H.E. Imran Khan to the Seventy-Sixth Session of the UN General Assembly, New York, September 25, 2021</p> Various Sources Copyright (c) 2022 National Defence University https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-02-15 2022-02-15 10 2 101 139