Journal of Contemporary Studies <p>The Journal of Contemporary Studies is a flagship publication of the Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS) National Defence University, first published in 2012.</p> <p><strong>HEC HJRS Awarded Y Category. </strong></p> <p><strong>Double Blind Peer-Review.</strong></p> <p><strong>Open Archive &amp; Open Access.</strong><strong> </strong></p> <ul type="circle"> <li><strong>P-ISSN: 2227-3883</strong></li> <li><strong>E-ISSN: 2707-3025</strong></li> </ul> en-US <p>License Terms</p> (Editor) webmaster@fcs.journal (Webmaster) Wed, 03 Nov 2021 11:41:00 +0500 OJS 60 Documents <p>1) Remarks by President Biden on America’s Place in the World, Washington D.C, February 4, 2021.</p> <p>2) Remarks by State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi at the Launch Ceremony in Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of China-Pakistan Diplomatic Relations, March 2, 2021.</p> <p>3) Final Communique of the Extraordinary Open-Ended Meeting of the OIC Executive Committee at the Level of Permanent Representatives on the Situation in Afghanistan, August 22, 2021.</p> <p>4) Joint Statement Director Generals of Military Operations of India and Pakistan, February 25, 2021.</p> International Sources Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 THE MUTUAL DISTRUST AND THE PROSPECTS FOR RESTORATION OF IRAN NUCLEAR DEAL <p>Despite the historic distrust between Iran and United States, signing of a landmark nuclear deal emerged as a hope for regional and international stability. This deal is supported by global powers and covered by UN Security Council Resolution but the unilateral withdrawal of Trump administration and Iran’s partial withdrawal raised serious concerns for all stakeholders. However, Joe Biden’s election as the US president brings hope that the deal will be revived. The victory of Iranian hardliners in the Parliamentary Elections of 2020 and the success of a conservative president in 2021, presents a gloomy scenario. The paper addresses the factors responsible for mutual distrust between the two nations and how, Tehran and Washington managed to overcome it for reaching a nuclear deal? The paper looks into the future of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. It highlights the attempts made to halt the Iranian nuclear program and emphasizes the significance of an Iranian Nuclear Deal. The options for Iran in the nuclear context are also under discussion in the wake of a recent rapprochement between Israel and Arab States.</p> Syed Qandil Abbas, Syed Fraz H. Naqvi Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 RUSSIAN DIPLOMATIC AND MILITARY STATECRAFT IN SYRIA <p>Russia has carefully employed its military and diplomatic tools of statecraft in the Syrian conflict. The Syrian war has been a quagmire with the diversity of actors involved having national, regional, and global interests. Russia’s decisive role and direct involvement in the conflict has brought it to the forefront of Middle Eastern politics. Russia after taking control of the Syrian airbase can carry out missions across the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean. Moreover, Russia has not only courted the regional states into its side particularly Turkey but has also successfully averted any direct clash with the US and Israel in Syria. Russia has been able to demonstrate its strategic will to take decisive actions and transforming the risks into opportunities. Syria has brought the Russians back to the international decision-making as an important player. Moreover; Syria has provided Russia with a geopolitical advantage in the Middle East and to uphold Russian status as a global power.</p> Saira Nawaz Abbasi, Nazir Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 ROLE OF INDIAN MEDIA IN FOMENTING WAR HYSTERIA BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN: A CASE STUDY OF URI INCIDENT <p>This study highlights the peril of Indian media’s insinuation of war with Pakistan in the aftermath of Uri incident of September 18, 2016. Uri was a violent expression of Kashmiri right of self-determination; but Indian media became a source of arousing anti-Pakistan hysteria for Indian public. The war frenzy created by the media, pressured Indian decision makers into making the claim of carrying out surgical strikes across the Line of Control (LoC). In this way, Indian media became a source of fomenting war between the two nuclear armed states. The study uses Indian sources to evidence the jingoistic frenzy of the Indian TV news channels. Importance of having responsible media in nuclear armed states has been underscored by Indian media’s dangerous handling of Uri crisis. This study raises awareness about the responsibility of media in sustaining peace between the nuclear rivals, particularly during crisis situations.</p> Ghulam Mujaddid, Anil Sarfraz Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 A FRAGILE SHIELD: INDIA’S BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENCE <p>India’s interest in developing Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) originates from its desire to counter ballistic missiles threats emanating from its traditional rivals in the region. Therefore, in 2001, India positively responded to United States of America’s offer of BMD, which created consternation among the regional countries particularly in Pakistan about its effects on the prevailing strategic stability and prospective arms race in the region. India’s ability to develop a BMD has been debated due to fallibility of the system particularly taking the lessons from the Antiballistic Missile Treaty 1972, when USA and former USSR decided to enter into the treaty due to the weakness of the shield and degeneration of nuclear deterrence, which could provoke a nuclear war. This article analyses India’s rationale and current ability to develop the ‘defensive shield’ and questions the assertion that BMD as a concept is a ‘defensive mechanism’ given India’s geographical vulnerabilities and availability of cost-effective offensive strategies to counter BMD.</p> Asim Ahmed, Mahroona Hussain Syed Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 WOMEN’S REPRESENTATION IN 13TH NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF PAKISTAN: ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GENDER QUOTA <p>Traditionally, patriarchal mindset has kept women away from politics, considering it a male domain, resulting in under-representation of women in legislatures. Observing disparities in these representations, the United Nations in various conferences (1975-1995) recommended one-third of seats for women as gender quota. Gender quotas have become an effective tool to enhance women's representation in legislative bodies throughout the world. In Pakistan, all the three constitutions reserved seats for women, but this provision lapsed in 1988. In 2002 it was restored with 17 percent quota in the parliament. The 13<sup>th</sup> National Assembly elections turned in higher number of women in the house, raising an expectation that an increase in number of women would increase their voice in the decision-making bodies. The study analyzes the effects of a numerical increase of women representation in the National Assembly on inclusion of gender concerns in legislation, specifically on women issues. The available literature suggest although gender quota has increased in numbers, it has not influenced the legislation on women issues to an expected level. This study deploys critical mass theory and mix research method to examine the effectiveness of gender quota in Pakistan.</p> Mussarat Jabeen, Sher Muhammad Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 THE EFFECT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE AND CAPABILITIES ON ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING IN PAKISTAN <p>The higher education institutions in Pakistan need to effectively utilize their capabilities to enhance organizational learning through IT-based infrastructure. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of knowledge management infrastructure and capabilities on organizational learning. To test the hypothesized relationships, data was collected from 250 respondents based on convenient sampling technique. The partial least square (PLS) structural equation modeling technique was applied for testing of hypotheses. The results revealed that IT-based knowledge management infrastructure is significantly related to organizational learning directly and through knowledge management capabilities. The study findings reinforced the need for the development of IT infrastructure in the service sector to enhance organizational learning.</p> Nasir Mehmood, Ikram Ahmad, Sadia Saeed Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 FATA’s MERGER INTO KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA (KP): CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD <p>The history of FATA reforms can be traced back to 2009-2011 when the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) government introduced reforms in the tribal regions i.e., the extension of Political Parties Order (PPO 2000) and amendments in the Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR). These reforms, however, have not replaced the out-dated tribal governance structure and the region's special status remains intact. The federal government has recently merged FATA into the KP province, aiming to introduce political, economic, legal, and administrative reforms and to bring the tribal areas at par with the rest of the country. The merger in itself is a bold step to be appreciated. However, the mainstreaming project has some way to go to completion. It is indeed the beginning of a cumbersome process. The major testing task is now its implementation. This article attempts to examine the FATA-KP merger, present and future challenges, and how to make the merger a success story.</p> Saeed Khan Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Ten Lessons for a Post-Pandemic World Tariq Asad Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Soft Power Internationalism Talha Chishti Copyright (c) 2021 NDU Mon, 30 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0500